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关于躺着旅游这件事,中国古代文人们的想象力有多野?
  • 来源:澎湃配资开户
  • 时间:2020-02-11

配资中国YUANBIAOTI:GUANYUTANGZHELVYOUZHEIJIANSHI,ZHONGGUOGUDAIWENRENMENDEXIANGXIANGLIYOUDUOYE?  

配资中国SHUODAOTANGZHELVYOUZHEIJIANSHI,QISHIYEBUSUANXINXIAN。ZAOZAIMEIYOUDIANSHI、DIANNAO、WANGLUODEGUDAI,ZHONGGUODEWENRENMENJIUYONGZIJIDECHUANGYIZHANXIANLEZUBUCHUHUJIUNENGXINSHANGMEIDEBANFA,HAICHENGWEILEDANGSHIDEYIZHONGCHAOLIU,ZHUJIANYINGXIANGLEHOUSHIHUIHUAHEYISHUJIANSHANGDEFAZHAN。

JIUJINGTAMENSHIRUHEWANCHULEFENGYANI?BUFANGDUDULISHI,PINPINZHEIXIEHUA,ZHAOZHAODAANBA。

“卧游”的源头

配资中国YIWEIMINGJIAOYUNGUSHANSHIDESENGRENYUNYOUZHIXIAOXIANGZHIDI,RANGHUAJIAHUAXIALENEILIDEFENG,BINGYICIWEIZHUTIZHAOJILEYIXIEJUSHI(ZAIJIAXIUXINGZHIREN),BANLEYICILEISIWENRENYAJINEIYANGDEJUHUI。JILUDANGSHICHANGMIANDEBAWEN,XIANZAIHAILIUZAINEIFUHUASHANG。YONGSHANSHUIHUAZUOZHUTI,KAIZHANHEWENREN、SHIDAFUYIYANGDEWENYAJUHUI,ZHEIZAIJIANGNANYIDAIWUXINGSHANZONGTUANTILIYEHENLIUXING,YIXIEWUMINGDEDUSHURENHUIJUZAIYIQIJUBANZHEIYANGDEHUODONG。ERQIEXIAOXIANGDUIYUTAMENLAISHUOYESHIYIGETESHUDEDIFANG,DAJIACHANGCHANGDAIZHECHONGJINGTANLUNNEILI。ZHEISHUOMING,WENREN、SHIDAFUJIANDEJIAOLIUFANGSHIHEJIAZHIGUAN,CHAOYUELEZHEIYIJIECENG,ZAINANSONGCHUQIPUJIKAILAI。

李氏《潇湘卧游图》日本东京国立博物馆藏 资料图

 

 

BAWENZHONGDE“WOYOU”YICITONGSHIYESHIZHEIFUHUAZUODETIMU,ZHEIGECIQISHISHIJIEKAISHIJINGSHANSHUIDUIYUWENRENLAISHUOYOUHEZHONGYAOYIYIDEGUANJIAN。GAICIZUIZAOKEZHUISUDAOLIUCHAOSHIDAI。SONGBINGSHINANCHAOSONGHUAJIA,TAXIHAOSHANSHUI,YINJUZAIHENGSHAN,WANNIANYINBINGHUIDAOGUXIANG。SHUAILAOHEJIBINGSHUANGSHUANGYAZAILETASHENSHANG,TAWUFAYOULIMINGSHANHAOSHUI,YUSHITANXIDAO:“WEIDANGCHENGHUAIGUANDAO,WOYIYOUZHI。”

配资中国WEILEZUBUCHUHUBIANNENGXINSHANGMEI,SONGBINGBAGUOQUZOUFANGGUODEDIFANGHUACHULAIGUAZAIQIANGSHANG,RANHOUZUOWOZAICHUANGSHANGGUANKAN。TAHAIWEIZHEIXIEHUAXIELEXUWEN《HUASHANSHUIXU》。SHUNBIANSHUOYIJU, SONGBINGYINJUDEHENGSHANWEIYUHUNANSHENG,JIUZAIDONGTINGHUFUJIN。

SONGBINGDE“WOYOU”HOULAICHENGLEWENRENSHANSHUIHUADEJIBENLINIAN。DUIYUTAMENLAISHUO,SHANSHUIHUASHIYIZHONGZHENSHIFENGJINGDEMEIHAOTIDAI。ERQIEYEMEIBIYAOFEIDEWENRENZIJIHUACAIXING,JISHISHIZHIYEHUAJIAHUADE,TAMENJIANSHANGSHIDEJINGSHENYEHEZONGBINGDEWOYOUXIANGSI。YINWEI《XIAOXIANGWOYOUTU》DEZHEIZHONGZUOYONG,GEGEDIFANGDEDUSHURENDOUZHENGXIANGLINGHUASHIMOFANG,BINGJIANGQIZUOWEIYAJIDEZHUTILAIJIANSHANG。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,ZHEILIDETICAIYESHIXIAOXIANG。

米友仁《潇湘奇观图卷》故宫博物馆图

 

 

HOULAI,BEISONGMONIANDEWENRENHUAJIAMIFEIHEQIZIMIYOURENSUIRANCHUANGLILE“MIJIASHANSHUI”,BINGYANXIZHIHOUSHI,ERXIANCUNDEMIYOURENZUOPINZHONGYEYOUTIWEIXIAOXIANGDEHUAZUO,RU《XIAOXIANGTU》《XIAOXIANGQIGUANTU》,ZHEIJUEFEIOURAN。XIAOXIANGZHEIYIHUIHUAZHUTIXIANRANZAISONGDAICHUQIDEWENRENSHANSHUIHUAZHONGYOUZHETESHUDEYIYIHEZHONGYAOXING。

行旅图、卧游图到纪游图

配资中国BEISONGSHANSHUIHUAZHONGSHUMINHELIAODEXINGLVHENNANBIAODAWENRENYINYIDESIXIANG, YINCIZAIWENRENSHANSHUIHUAZHONGHENSHAOCHUXIAN。ERDAOLEMINGDAI,YUYIWANGBUTONGDEXINXINGLVXINGSHIKAISHICHENGWEIWENRENSHANSHUIHUADEZHUTI。ZHEIZHONGHUABEICHENGWEIJIYOUTU,BIAOXIANDESHIWEILEXIANGLEDELVXING。

配资中国GUOQU,SONGDAISHIRENDELVXINGZHUYAOSHIWEILEKAOSHI、FUREN、GUISHENGDENG,WENRENJIAOLIUZHONGDANSHENGDEDAIYOUDIMINGDESHANSHUITUYEBINGFEICHUZISHIJILVXING,ERSHIWEILE“WOYOU”CHUANGZUODE。CONGXIANCUNDEZUOPINLAIKAN,ZHEIYANGDEWOYOUTUZHONGBINGZHAOBUDAOYINGGAIWOYOUQIZHONGDEWENREN。

配资中国DANSHIDAOLEMINGDAI,WENRENQINZILAIDAOFENGJINGMINGSHENGDI,YILVXINGDESHIJITIYANWEILINGGANHUAXIASHANSHUIHUA。ZUIMINGXIANDEYILIJIUSHIYUANMINGCHAODAIJIAOTIQI,YUANFUSHANXIHUASHANLVXINGDEJIANGNANLANGZHONGWANGLVHUAXIADE《HUASHANTUCE》。

王履《华山图册》第九开 故宫博物院图

 

 

配资中国GAITUCESHITADENGHUASHANHOULIJIHUADE,SHULIANGJINGDA60FUZHIDUO。HUALIMIAOHUILERENMENXINKUDENGSHANDESHENYING(BAOKUOHUAJIAZIJI),FENGJINGFANYINGLESHIDIDEJINGGUAN,XIANGGUANZHONGCHUANDALELVXINGDESHIJIGANSHOU。ZHEIBUSHIPIAOMIAODEWOYOUMENG,ERSHIYIFUGENGQIANGDIAOJILUXIANSHILVXINGDEZUOPIN。ZHEIZHONGBEICHENGWEIJIYOUTUDESHANSHUIHUAZAIMINGDAIHENLIUXING,WENRENYICILAIJILUTAMENDELVXING。

配资中国CUCHENGZHEILEIZHUTIFAZHANDEYINSUJIUSHIJINGJIDEFAZHAN,BENBOBUZAIZHISHIWEILEFURENHUOXINGSHANG,ZAIMINGDAIYIXIANGLEWEIMUDEDELVXINGCHENGWEIKENENG,BINGQIESHIFENLIUXING。ZHEIZHONGQINGXIANGZAIJIANGNANJINGJIFUSU、FAZHANDEMINGDAIHOUBANQIYOUWEIMINGXIAN,HENDUORENDOUZOUCHUJIAMEN,DAOGEDIDEMINGSHANMINGSHENGYOUWAN。QIZHONGJIUCHUXIANLEXUXIAKEZHEIYANGDEREN,TAYOULILEZHONGGUODEDAJIANGNANBEI,CONGBEIBIANDEMENGGUCAOYUANDAOXINANDEYUNNANGUIZHOU,LIUXIALEXUDUOJILU、YOUJI。ZAIZHEIYANGDESHIDAIBEIXIA,WEIJILUZIJIHUOPENGYOUDEDAXIAOLVXINGERCHUANGZUODEJIYOU TUDEDAOLEPENGBOFAZHAN。

游记与纪游

配资中国WENRENYICHUMENLVXING,JIUHUIZAIGEDIYINSHI。QIZHONGMINGQIDADESHIGEHUIBEIKEZAIYANSHISHANG,XIAYIGELAIDERENHUIZAIZHEISHOUSHIDEJICHUSHANGZAIYONGSHI。DANGRAN,MINGSHIJIUSUANBUKEZAISHITOUSHANGYEHUIBEIRENMENCHUANCHANG,HAIYOUNEIXIEYOUGUANDANGDIDELISHICHUANSHUO,YESHIXIYINYOURENDEDIFANG。YIGEDIFANGZHISUOYICHENGWEIMINGSHENGDI,RANGRENXIANGYAOYIYOU,DOUYAOGUIGONGYUYOUGUANGAIDIDESHIGE、WENXUEHUOLISHIGUSHI。WANQUANBUJIARENGONGXIUSHIDEZIRANCHENGWEIFENGJINGGUANGUANGDISHIBIJIAOHOULAIDESHILE。BUGUANZENMESHUO,ZAIZHONGGUOXIANGYAOZANMEIZIRAN,BIXUTONGSHIJIANSHANGGAIDICHENDIANXIALAIDELISHIHESHICI,YEJIUSHISHUOXUYAOBAKONGJIANHESHIJIANJIEHEQILAIXINSHANG。

WENRENZAIYOUWANHOUHUILIUXIASHICI,YEJIUSHILVXINGYOUJI。JIYOUTUSHITONGGUOHUIHUAJILULVXING,ERFEIWENZI。JIUXIANGJINTIANWOMENPAIZHAOLIUNIANYIYANG,SHIJUEJILUBIWENZIJILUGENGZHIGUANYIDONG,YEGENGSHOUHUANYING。WENRENHUAJIAZAIYINSHIFUCIHOULIUXIAHUIHUAJILUSHISHIFENZIRANDESHI。RANER,SUISHUODANGSHIXIANGLELVXINGYUELAIYUELIUXING,DANXIANGXUXIAKENEIYANGMAOXIANLVXINGSHIHENSHAOYOURENNENGZUODAODE,YIBANDEJIYOUJILUDEDOUSHISHENBIANDEJIANGNANFENGJINGDI,SHIXIAOXIAODELVXING。SUZHOUJIAOWAIDEMINGSHENGDIHUQIU、TIANPINGSHAN、LINGYANSI、TIANCHISHIBI、ZHIXINGSHAN、 TAIHUDONGTINGSHAN、SHIHU、SUZHOUDUIANDEZHANGGONGDONGDENGDI,DUOCICHUXIANZAIHUALI。

黄公望《天池石壁图》北京故宫博物院藏

 

 

YOUQISHITIANCHISHIBI,ZIYUANDAIHUANGGONGWANGHUAGUOYILAIMINGSHENGDAZUO,BEIHOUSHIHUAJIAFANFUMIAOHUA。YUANDAIHUANGGONGWANGDESHANSHUIHUAPIANFUHENDA,DANHENDUOMINGDAIJIYOUTUXIANGZHUAPAIYIYANG,CAIYONGLEXIAOFUHUAJUANHUOHUACEDEXINGSHI,JIANGRENWUHEZHOUWEIDEGUANBUZHUOJINLAI。GUOQUDEWOYOUTUCHENGLEXIANZAIDESHIJILVXINGJILU。

QISHI,MINGDAIDENEIXIEMINGSHENGDIYESHIWENRENZHIBANBIESHUDEDIFANG,JIYINJUZHIDI。JIYOUTUSHIMINGSUOTU,SHISHIJINGSHANSHUI,SHENZHIHAISHICONGYINYONGMINGSHENGDESHIGELIDEDAOLINGGANERCHUANGZUODESHIYITU。RUGUONEILIYOUMOURENDEBIESHU、TINGYUAN,JIUYOUCHENGLEBIESHUTU、BIEYETU、BIEHAOTU、YUANLINTU。JIYOUTUHEHENDUOHUIHUAZHUTIDOUYOUZHONGFU,TONGSHIYEXIANGTONG。SHIJINGTUSHIHUAXIAGUYOUJINGGUANDETU。BIQISHIJINGTU,JIYOUTUGENGCEZHONGYUBIAOXIANRENWU,HUOXUMEIYOUBIESHUERJINJINCHUYUYOUWANMUDELAIDAOMOUDIDE,CAIGENGSHIHEBEICHENGWEIJIYOUTU。GUO QUJIANGJIAODIANFANGZAIZHANGTUBASHESHANGDE“XINGLV”HEMINGDAIDEJIYOUSUITONGWEILVXING,QUEYOUZHEBENZHIDEQUBIE。

DAOLEMINGMO,JIYOUTULIHUADEBUZAIJINJINSHIDOUSHIDEJIAOWAIHEBIESHU,RENJIXIANZHIDESHENSHAN、YUANFANGDEMINGYUEYECHENGWEIREMENLVXINGDI。ANHUIHUANGSHANSHIDANGSHIDERENMENMIAOHUADEXINZHUTI。YINWEINEILISHIXINANSHANGRENDEGUXIANG,JINGJIDEFAZHANDAIDONGLEWENHUAHUODONGDEFANRONG,ANHUIYEKAISHICHUXIANDALIANGWENRENHUAJIA。

《黄山志》二卷 清乾隆庚寅年(1770)刻本 资料图

 

 

QINGCHUCHUBANLEHENDUOHUANGSHANZHINAN,HAIYOUSOUJILEYOUGUANHUANGSHANDESHIWEN、YOUJIBINGDAITUDE《HUANGSHANZHI》。YIHUANGSHANJIAOXIACHUSHENGDEHONGREN、MEIQINGWEISHOU,HAIYOUZANJUGUOANHUIXUANCHENGDESHITAODENGZHONGDUOHUAJIA,LIUXIALEXUDUOMIAOHUAHUANGSHANDEJIEZUO。

LEISIHUANGSHANTU,NEIXIEMIAOHUILEXINFENGJINGMINGSHENGDIDESHANSHUIHUAYESHISHIJINGSHANSHUI,ERQIESHICHUZIWENRENLVXINGZHONGQIESHENGANSHOUDEJIYOUTU。GUOQUCHONGJINGQUEWUFACHUJIDESHANSHUIXIANZAICHENGLESHIJICUNZAI、BIXUYIYOUDEFENGJING。JIYOUTUQUEQUESHISHIDIZHANJULEMINGDAIYIHOUWENRENHUADEYIJIAO,CHENGLEXINDELVXINGZHUTI。

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